The temporomandibular joint â€“ the TMJ isthe joint between the lower jawbone the mandible and the temporal bone of the skull.The TMJ is responsible for jaw movement and enables chewing, talking and yawning. Temporomandibulardisorders, or TMD, refer to a group of conditions characterized by pain in the jaw area andlimited movement of the mandible. TMD may be caused by problems in the joint itselfor in the muscles surrounding the joint. Problems in the joint include: arthritis, inflammationand internal derangements. When the problem is in the muscles, the condition is calledmyofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome is very common andcan occur in patients with a normal temporomandibular
joint. The syndrome is characterized by presenceof hyperirritable spots located in skeletal muscles called trigger points. A trigger pointcan be felt as a nodule of muscle with harder than normal consistency. Palpation of triggerpoints may elicit pain in a different location. This is called referred pain.Trigger points are developed as a result of muscle overuse. Commonly, the muscles of chewing,or mastication, are overworked when patients excessively clench or grind their teeth unconsciouslyduring sleep. The medical term for this condition is â€œnocturnal bruxismâ€�. A trigger pointis composed of many contraction knots where individual muscle fibers contract and cannotrelax. The sustained contraction of muscle
sarcomeres compresses local blood supply,resulting in energy shortage of the area. This metabolic crisis activates pain receptors,generating a regional pain pattern that follows a specific nerve passage. The pain patternsare therefore consistent and are well documented for various muscles.Trigger points in the masseter refer pain to the cheeks, lower jaw, upper and lowermolar teeth, eyebrow, inside the ear and around the TMJ area. Trigger points in the temporalisare also associated with headache and toothache from upper teeth. The main culprits of myofascialpain in the TMJ area are the pterygoid muscles. Trigger points in medial pterygoid refer painto the TMJ region in front of the ear, inside
the mouth and upper outside of the neck. Theymay also manifest as sore throat and difficulty swallowing. Pain from lateral pterygoid triggerpoints can be felt in front of the ear and on the upper jaw.Treatments aim to address bruxism, to relieve muscle spasm and release trigger points. Treatmentoptions include: Therapies: stress management, behavior therapy,biofeedback to encourage relaxation. Dental night guards: Splints and mouth guards to protect the teeth from damage. Medication: pain relievers, muscle relaxants,botox injections. Trigger points release techniques such asneedling and â€œspray and stretchâ€�.
Swollen Glands the signs and symptoms
One of the most common reasons that I see people in my consulting room is because they’re worried aboutswollen gland, and usually they’re talking about swollen glands in their necks. Isuspect the reason so many people worry about swollen glands is that they know that they can be asymptom of cancer. Well here’s the good news: they almost always mean something much less scary. So let’s think a little bitabout what they are
so we can understand why you get them, and what you need to look out for basically your glands, or quot;lymph glandsquot; or quot;lymph nodesquot; are kind of like stations on a complicated railwaynetwork and the railway lines are your lymph channels. Now those lymph channels are filled with a fluid called lymph, and they carry the white blood cells which help yourbody to fight off infection around your body
if you get an infection in one part or ifyour body spots an quot;invaderquot; it activates yourbody’s immune system, your defense mechanisms, and they sendwhite cells rushing to the spot. They’ll congregate at that Station, that lymph node, and that’s why glands swell. If your slim you may be able tofeel normal size glands actually they’re about the size of a pea or a bitsmaller and some of them are just underneath the skin whereas others
are buried deep inside the inside of your tummy and inside your chest but those ones that you can feel, are mostly in the armpits in the groin and round the head and neck now, you have title tracks of lymph glandswhich go behind there and a little group in front of your ears you have more underneath the chin andyet more just above your collar bone here. We alsohave a chain which goes round the back of yourscalp, right at the bottom there.
so there are lots and lots of glands, and actually if you feel one, it may not be enlarged at all however by far the most common reason for lymphglands to get swollen is infection, and that does cause enlargement. Kids who have a lot of tonsillitis or sore throats, their glands will be going up and down like that all the time. Ifyou have an infection it’ll often make your glance well very quickly becauseyour body is rushing very quickly to the spot
those glands will not only be large, butthen also be tender now which glands will be swollen willdepend on where the infection is so for instance your whole leg cranes to the limp glands in your groin, so aninfection in your toe could cause swollen glands in your groin. Very muchless likely, breast cancer, or an infection in yourbreast, drains to the lymph glands in your armpit so itcould cause inflammation if those ones there.